Aa Aa. See more. This accords with the principle of Peter professed at the Council in Jerusalem (Acts 15:11) that we are saved without the yoke of the law, "through the grace of the Lord Jesus." The Epistle of James the Brother of the Lord was written, no doubt, from Jerusalem, the metropolis of the ancient theocracy and Jewish Christianity, where the author labored and died a martyr at the head of the mother church of Christendom and as the last connecting link between the old and the new dispensation. The Second and Third Epistles of John are, like the Epistle of Paul to Philemon, short private letters, one to a Christian woman by the name of Cyria, the other to one Gains, probably an officer of a congregation in Asia Minor. by Huther, Düsterdieck, Beyerschlag), Lange (Eng. The Epistle exhorts the readers to diligence, virtue, temperance, patience, godliness, brotherly love, and brotherly kindness; refers to the Transfiguration on the Mount, where the author witnessed the majesty of Christ, and to the prophetic word inspired by the Holy Spirit; warns against antinomian errors; corrects a mistake concerning the second coming; exhorts them to prepare for the day of the Lord by holy living, looking for new heavens and a new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness; and closes with the words: "Grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, to whom be glory both now and forever.". The second and third Epistles of John are addressed to individuals. Origen remarks that it is "of few lines, but rich in words of heavenly wisdom." 2 John 4 -7 with 1 John 2:7, 8; 4, 2, 3. Peculiar to him is the doctrine of the descent of Christ into Hades (1 Pet.3:19; 4:6; comp. History of the Christian Church, Volume I. Easton, Matthew George. Spitta in his Der Zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas (Halle, 1885, 544 pages).  Commentators are divided on the meaning of Babylon, 1:Pet. (ed. The early Church gave the title “General” (or “Catholic,” meaning universal) to the seven epistles that bear the names of James, Peter, John and Jude. Reuss occupies a middle position. Bengel: "Mirabilis est gravitas et alacritas Petrini sermonis, lectorem suavissime retinens." These three have traditionally been attributed to John the Apostle, the son of Zebedee and one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. It is safest to say, with Bleek, that it was written shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem, which is not alluded to (comp. But Paul condemned antinomianism as severely as James and Jude (comp. Catholic Epistles definition is - the five New Testament letters including James, I and II Peter, I John, and Jude addressed to the early Christian churches at large. On the whole, these epistles tend to deal with three general issues: 1. The letter constantly mingles moral exhortation (paraklēsis) with its catechetical summaries of mercies in Christ. The Epistle of Jude, a, "brother of James" (the Just),  is very short, and strongly resembles 2 Peter 2, but differs from it by an allusion to the remarkable apocryphal book of Enoch and the legend of the dispute of Michael with the devil about the body of Moses. 5:13, whether it be the mystic Babylon of the Apocalypse, i.e., heathen Rome, as a persecuting power (the fathers, Roman Catholic divines, also Thiersch, Baur, Renan), or Babylon on the Euphrates, or Babylon in Egypt (old Cairo). But the second Epistle resembles the first, almost to verbal repetition,  and such repetition well agrees with the familiar tradition of Jerome concerning the apostle of love, ever exhorting the congregation, in his advanced age, to love one another. The seven General Epistles are: Timothy, Paul’s close associate, was also involved in transcribing and delivering Paul’s letters (Colossians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; Philemon 1:1). About the other five there was more or less doubt as to their origin down to the close of the fourth century, when all controversy on the extent of the canon went to sleep till the time of the Reformation.  Its leading idea is "the perfect law of freedom," or the law of love revealed in Christ. The most commonly accepted explanation is that these epistles were addressed, not to individual churches or persons, but to a number of churches. The Epistle to the Ephesians is likewise intended for more than one congregation. These epistles, with the exceptions of 2 and 3 John, are addressed to a general audience of believers rather than to a specific church. with additions by Mombert, 1872), John T. Demarest (N. York, 1879); also the relevant parts in the "Speaker's Com.," in Ellicott's Com., the Cambridge Bible for Schools (ed. Catholic epistles. For once I agree with him. Application: what Christians should do with doctrine 3. Alongside the four Gospels, Acts, the Pauline letters (which often included Hebrews), and the Apocalypse, the Catholic Epistles (James, 1–2 Peter, 1–3 John, and Jude) form a discrete collection of works the New Testament. The Second Epistle of Peter is addressed, shortly before the author's death, as a sort of last will and testament, to the same churches as the first. 625 sqq. Doctrine: what Christians should know 2. d. heil. ; Holtzmann, Einleitung, pp. Analysis. Comp. The first chapter defines the epistles and describes the history of their canonization. Nine of Paul’s letters were addressed to local churches in certain areas of the Roman empire. The designation, however, is not strictly correct, and applies only to five of them. Summary of Hebrews, the General Epistles and Revelation Book # of Chapters Author Theme Place Written Date Written Recipients Hebrews 13 Unknown (Luke?) This perspective makes James an eminently practical book. The subjects treated of in the Epistle are many and various; moreover, St. James not infrequently, whilst elucidating a certain point, passes abruptly to another, and presently resumes once more his former argument; hence it is difficult to give a precise division of the Epistle. 18:55; Mark 6:3. On the other hand the Epistle to the Hebrews is encyclical, and ought to be numbered with the Catholic Epistles, but is usually appended to those of Paul. This remarkably wide acceptance, representing as it does the voice of ancient tradition, testifies to the canonicity and the genuineness of Jude. You’ll see Paul telling children to obey parents, masters to be kind to the… The Catholic epistles are also distinguishable from each other in their varied emphases on aspects of Christian truth. It is probably the oldest of the New Testament books, meagre in doctrine, but rich in comfort and lessons of holy living based on faith in Jesus Christ, "the Lord of glory." d. heil. It goes back to the early church fathers, but how it arose is unknown. The First Epistle of Peter, dated from Babylon,  belongs to the later life of the apostle, when his ardent natural temper was deeply humbled, softened, and sanctified by the work of grace. A term applied to the Epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude. The bulk of the letter, however, is a deep and poignant study on the basic doctrines of the Christian faith. II. Published on Aug 17, 2018 Of the 27 books of the New Testament, Christians have referred to seven of them as the "Catholic epistles" (or "catholic letters") for more than a thousand years. It exhorts the readers to good works of faith, warns them against dead orthodoxy, covetousness, pride, and worldliness, and comforts them in view of present and future trials and persecutions. Jacobi für sich allein mehr wörtliche Reminiscenzen aus den Reden Jesu enthält als alle übrigen Apost. Go on to maturity Unknown (Rome?) 30 sqq. Catholic Epistle, the name given to the Epistle of St. James, to that of St. Jude, to two Epistles of St. Peter and the first three of St. John, because, unlike the Epistles of St. Paul, they were addressed not to any particular person or church, but to the faithful generally after the manner of an Encyclical letter. Epp.  The chief objections are: the want of early attestation, the reference to a collection of the Pauline Epistles, the polemic against Gnostic errors, some peculiarities of style, and especially the apparent dependence of the second chapter on the Epistle of Jude. For instance, 1 Peter dwells on Christian patience under trial, 1 John on Christian love, and James on matters of essentially practical interest. The God who called into being the family and the church is also the God who created work. 417 sqq. Show footnotes. summary The Catholic Epistles and Apostolic Tradition asks two questions: Can the Catholic Epistles from James to Jude be fruitfully examined in relation to each other, without contrasting them with the Pauline Epistles? They do not enter into theological discussions like those of Paul, the … It is a solemn warning against the antinomian and licentious tendencies which revealed themselves between a.d.60 and 70. Commentaries on all the Catholic Epistles by Goeppfert (1780), Schlegel (1783), Carpzov (1790), Augusti (1801), Grashof (1830), Jachmann (1838), Sumner (1840), De Wette (3d ed. ; Weiss, Die Petrinische Frage (1865); Renan, L'Antechrist, p. vi and 110; and, on the part of the Tübingen school, Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, pp.  Weiss, Thiersch, Fronmüller, Alford, and especially Fr. (See Authorship of the Johannine works.) James brings an action-oriented perspective to the principles that we can trust God to provide for us and that we must work for the benefit of others in need. Catholic epistles definition, the New Testament Epistles of James, I and II Peter, I John, and sometimes II and III John and Jude, addressed to the entire church. John, EPISTLES OF Saint, three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John. It takes no notice of the circumcision controversy, the Jerusalem compromise, and the later conflicts of the apostolic age. The Catholic Epistles are distinct from the Pauline by their more general contents and the absence of personal and local references. The themes of the General Epistles include faith, hope and love. It consists of precious consolations, and exhortations to a holy walk after the example of Christ, to joyful hope of the heavenly inheritance, to patience under the persecutions already raging or impending. Jacobi für sich allein mehr wörtliche Reminiscenzen aus den Reden Jesu enthält als alle übrigen Apost. See on the lit., biography, and theology of Peter, §§ 25, 26, and 70. This does not mean in this connection anti-heretical (still less, of course, Greek Catholic or Roman Catholic), but encyclical or circular. i, 19), who was the author of the Catholic Epistle of St. James. The time and place of composition are unknown. Schriften zusammen .... Insofern dieselben offenbar nicht aus schriftlichen Quellen geflossen sind, mögen sie mit das höhere Alter deg Briefs verbürgen." This book introduces the Catholic Epistles and discusses the different interpretive approaches that have been used to gain a clearer understanding of them. Bible Version. The first fourteen of these letters are called the “Epistlesof Paul” and are letters that tradition has accorded to St. Paulin his correspondence with the earliest churches in the first andsecond century. The brevity of the Epistle, the coincidences between it and II Peter, and the supposed quotation from apocryphal books, created a prejudice agains… Three of the seven letters are anonymous. The Pastoral Epistles are 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus. of Huther in Meyer, 1881) and Erdmann (1881), the most recent commentators of James, agree with Schneckenburger, Neander, and Thiersch in assigning the Epistle to the earliest date of Christian literature, against the Tübingen school, which makes it a polemical treatise against Paul. On the date of composition commentators are likewise divided, as they differ in their views on the relation of Peter's Epistle to Romans, Ephesians, and James, and on the character of the persecution alluded to in the Epistle. ), but most critics assign it to the time between 63 and 67, Renan to 63, shortly before the Neronian persecution.  Commentators are divided on the meaning of Babylon, 1:Pet. Read this work This book contains John Calvin's excellent commentary on James, First and Second Peter, First John, and Jude. (2d ed.). Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. On the date of composition commentators are likewise divided, as they differ in their views on the relation of Peter's Epistle to Romans, Ephesians, and James, and on the character of the persecution alluded to in the Epistle. The undeveloped state of Christian doctrine, the use of sunagoge for a Christian assembly (James 2:2), the want of a clear distinction between Jews and Jewish Christians, who are addressed as "the twelve tribes," and the expectation of the approaching parousia (5:8), concur as signs of the high antiquity. Rom.6, and in fact all his Epistles). transl. They do not enter into theological discussions like those of Paul, the learned Rabbi, and give simpler statements of truth, but protest against the rising ascetic and Antinomian errors, as Paul does in the Colossians and Pastoral Epistles. The reason that they’re called the Catholic Epistles or the Universal Epistles is because none of these is addressed to one person or one particular church. The Catholic Epistles are distinct from the Pauline by their more general contents and the absence of personal and local references. Catholic Epistle, the name given to the Epistle of St. James, to that of St. Jude, to two Epistles of St. Peter and the first three of St. John, because, unlike the Epistles of St. Paul, they were addressed not to any particular person or church, but to the faithful generally after the manner of an Encyclical letter. They were addressed to the church at large, i.e., the universal church. Alford: "There is no Epistle in the sacred canon, the language and spirit of which come more directly home to the personal trials and wants and weaknesses of the Christian life.". 3.  Clement of Alexandria, Origen (in Greek), and Epiphanius distinguish him from the Apostles. It is addressed to the Jews and Jewish Christians of the dispersion before the final doom in the year 70. The epistle is address to "the twelve tribes of the Dispersion," which means those of the twelve tribes dispersed in other countries than Palestine . on the lit., biography, and doctrine of James, §§ 27 and 69. 138): "Thatsache ist, dass die Ep.  "This excellent Epistle," says Archbishop Leighton, whose Practical Commentary upon the First Epistle General of St. Peter is still unsurpassed for spirituality and unction, "is a brief and yet very clear summary both of the consolations and instructions needful for the encouragement and direction of a Christian in his journey to heaven, elevating his thoughts and desires to that happiness, and strengthening him against all opposition in the way, both that of corruption within and temptations and afflictions from without." Schriften N. Testaments, 5th ed., I.  Hence Origen calls it an epistole katholike. As Peter himself receives in one of these Epistles (Gal.2:11) a sharp rebuke for his inconsistency at Antioch (which may be included in the hard things), this affectionate allusion proves how thoroughly the Spirit of Christ had, through experience, trained him to humility, meekness, and self-denial. The seven Epistles of James, 1st and 2d Peter, 1st, 2d, and 3d John, and Jude usually follow in the old manuscripts the Acts of the Apostles, and precede the Pauline Epistles, perhaps as being the works of the older apostles, and representing, in part at least, the Jewish type of Christianity. Bibliography Information. 1 Peter, for example, mentions Silvanus or Silas (1 Peter 5:12) as transcribing Peter’s letter. It strongly resembles the Gospel of Matthew, and echoes the Sermon on the Mount in the fresh, vigorous, pithy, proverbial, and sententious style of oriental wisdom. An epistle was a letter written on a scroll most often dictated by an author to a scribe and then reviewed by the author before being delivered by a trustworthy messenger. 18:55; Mark 6:3. This Epistle is called Catholic or Universal, as formerly were also the two Epistles of St. Peter, the first of St. John and that of St. Jude, because they were not written to any peculiar people or particular person, but to the faithful in general. Comp. Beyschlag (in the new ed. on this whole question the discussion in 27. 514 sqq. It is a circular letter of the venerable apostle to his beloved children in Asia Minor, exhorting them to a holy life of faith and love in Christ, and earnestly warning them against the Gnostic "antichrists," already existing or to come, who deny the mystery of the incarnation, sunder religion from morality, and run into Antinomian practices. 1. ), clearly a Jewish audience James 5 James, brother of Jesus Faith that works Jerusalem? 2 John 4 -7 with 1 John 2:7, 8; 4, 2, 3. 45-50 The twelve tribes dispersed abroad 1 Peter 5 Peter Suffering unto glory … 514 sqq. .  Comp. The Epistle of Jude is one of the so-called antilegomena; but, although its canonicity has been questioned in several Churches, its genuineness has never been denied. ; Hilgenfeld, Einleitung, pp. ; Weiss, Die Petrinische Frage (1865); Renan, L'Antechrist, p. vi and 110; and, on the part of the Tübingen school, Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, pp. It represents the primary stage of Christian doctrine. He is mentioned with James as one of the brothers of Jesus, Matt. It gives us the fruit of a rich spiritual experience, and is altogether worthy of Peter and his mission to tend the flock of God under Christ, the chief shepherd of souls. At the beginning of the third century the Epistle was universally accepted except in the primitive East Syrian Church, where none of the Catholic Epistles were recognized, nor the Apocalypse. Weiss, who denies that Peter used the Epistles of Paul, dates it back as far as 54; the Tübingen critics bring it down to the age of Trajan (Volkmar even to 140! contain catholic truths; but other Epistles might, for this reason, be also called catholic. And these are the Epistles, these seven are the ones that the Church has collectively named the Catholic Epistles. It is a postscript to it, or a practical application of the lessons of the life of Christ to the wants of the church at the close of the first century. The General Epistles, also known as the Catholic Epistles, are the seven New Testament letters written by James, Peter, John, and Jude. Each has a distinct character and purpose, and none could well be spared from the New Testament without marring the beauty and completeness of the whole. See Huther (in the Meyer series), 4th ed., pp. of Huther in Meyer, 1881) and Erdmann (1881), the most recent commentators of James, agree with Schneckenburger, Neander, and Thiersch in assigning the Epistle to the earliest date of Christian literature, against the Tübingen school, which makes it a polemical treatise against Paul. Seven epistles, that of James and the six that follow, are called Catholic, that is, general or universal, as not being directed to any particular church. Regarded as one of the Reformation's best interpreters of scripture, Calvin is an apt commentator. 65-67 Unstated (former Jewish priest? Public Domain, copy freely. . External evidence.—The very brevity of this letter (105 verses divided into five chapters) and the lateness of its composition might lead us to suspect no traces thereof in the Apostolic Fathers. Font.  Comp. FIRST EPISTLE.—I. It is eminently practical and free from subtle theological questions. Comp. The Epistle of Jude belongs likewise to the Eusebian Antilegomena, and has signs of post-apostolic origin, yet may have been written by Jude, who was not one of the Twelve, though closely connected with apostolic circles. by Brückner 1865), Meyer (the Cath. The difference of opinion in the ancient church respecting them may have risen partly from their private nature and their brevity, and partly from the fact that the author styles himself, somewhat remarkably, the "elder," the "presbyter."  Erasmus, Calvin, Grotius, Neander, De Wette, Huther, and all the Tübingen critics.  Reuss (Gesch. The undeveloped state of Christian doctrine, the use of sunagoge for a Christian assembly (James 2:2), the want of a clear distinction between Jews and Jewish Christians, who are addressed as "the twelve tribes," and the expectation of the approaching parousia (5:8), concur as signs of the high antiquity. Even so, Paul verifies in eac… This James is to be identified with the Bishop of the Church of Jerusalem (Acts, xv, 13; xxi, 18), spoken of by St. Paul as "the brother of the Lord" (Gal. The seeming exceptions, 2 and 3 … The question is connected with Peter's presence in Rome, which has been discussed in 26. Spitta in his Der Zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas (Halle, 1885, 544 pages). Reader Width. 417 sqq. ; Hilgenfeld, Einleitung, pp.  Weiss, Thiersch, Fronmüller, Alford, and especially Fr. The individuality of James, Peter, and John stand out very prominently in these brief remains of their correspondence. By contrast, most of St. Paul’s Epistles are written to one church, e.g., the Church in Rome, … The persons addressed, as the contents of the epistle show, were the Christian Jews of the Dispersion, and not the unbelievers. It contains more reminiscences of the words of Christ than any other epistle. There were very few such Christians until the apostles had been preaching many years, and had made converts in many lands; … The style is fresh and vigorous. 2. The second Epistle is reckoned by Eusebius among the seven Antilegomena, and its Petrine authorship is doubted or denied, in whole or in part, by many eminent divines  but defended by competent critics. They were not all, however, addressed originally to believers generally, but some of them to particular classes of believers, or even to individuals, as the introductory words show. A forger would hardly have written under the name of a "brother of James" rather than a brother of Christ or an apostle. The question is connected with Peter's presence in Rome, which has been discussed in 26. A A . In 1 Pt 4:12 – 19 persecution is described as already occurring, so that some have supposed the letter was addressed both to places where such a “trial by fire” was already present and to places where it might break out. These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II. 5:13, whether it be the mystic Babylon of the Apocalypse, i.e., heathen Rome, as a persecuting power (the fathers, Roman Catholic divines, also Thiersch, Baur, Renan), or Babylon on the Euphrates, or Babylon in Egypt (old Cairo). 1. See Huther (in the Meyer series), 4th ed., pp. Christ died for all men, for those who lived before as well as after his coming, and he revealed himself to the spirits in the realm of Hades. This Epistle has six chapters, 113 verses, and 2,269 words. The household of God begins with the family, extends to the church, and often applies to the workplace. Schriften N. Testaments, 5th ed., I. The individuality of James, Peter, and John stand out very prominently in these brief remains of their correspondence. They represent different, though essentially harmonious, types of doctrine and Christian life. by Dean Perowne), and in the International Revision Com. Date and place of composition; IV. Beyschlag (in the new ed. All three are letters from an old man at the close of his ministry who is concerned for his successors in the pastorate. Schriften zusammen .... Insofern dieselben offenbar nicht aus schriftlichen Quellen geflossen sind, mögen sie mit das höhere Alter deg Briefs verbürgen." Because of its unique apocalyptic nature, however, in this survey we are distinguishing it as The Prophetic Book of the New Testament. It seems morally impossible that a forger should have produced a letter so full of spiritual beauty and unction, and expressly denouncing all cunning fabrications. The first Christian document of an encyclical character is the pastoral letter of the apostolic Conference at Jerusalem (a.d.50) to the Gentile brethren in Syria and Cilicia (Acts 15:23-29). Alford: "There is no Epistle in the sacred canon, the language and spirit of which come more directly home to the personal trials and wants and weaknesses of the Christian life. Having finished the survey of the historical books (the Gospels and Acts), we now come to the twenty-one epistles of the New Testament, twenty-two if one includes Revelation as an epistle (which in reality it is [see Rev. If faith is realif we truly trust Godthen our faith will lead to all kinds of practical actions for the benefit of others in need. This term, however, is probably to be taken, not in the official sense, but in the original, signifying age and dignity; for at that time John was in fact a venerable father in Christ, and must have been revered and loved as a patriarch among his "little children.". and is regarded amongst Catholic interpreters as the Apostle James the son of Alpheus (see JAMES THE LESS, SAINT). CATHOLIC EPISTLES. For once I agree with him. It is a worthy valedictory of the aged apostle awaiting his martyrdom, and with its still valid warnings against internal dangers from false Christianity, it forms a suitable complement to the first Epistle, which comforts the Christians amidst external dangers from heathen and Jewish persecutors. ; Holtzmann, Einleitung, pp. On the other hand, the Epistle, at least the first and third chapters, contains nothing which Peter might not have written, and the allusion to the scene of transfiguration admits only the alternative: either Peter, or a forger. And that leaves seven Epistles. See Saint James; Saint John; Saint Jude; Saint Peter. Jude 14, 15). In particular, he frequently … Recipients, occasion, and object; III. They represent different, though essentially harmonious, types of doctrine and Christian life. 30 sqq. Peter also warns against hierarchical ambition in prophetic anticipation of the abuse of his name and his primacy among the apostles. Others have supposed that catholic is synonymous with canonical; but in this case also there is no more reason for applying the word to these Epistles than to any other Epistles.  Hence Origen calls it an epistole katholike. It may have been enlarged by the editor after Peter's death. He is mentioned with James as one of the brothers of Jesus, Matt. Luther's harsh, unjust, and unwise judgment of this Epistle has been condemned by his own church, and reveals a defect in his conception of the doctrine of justification which was the natural result of his radical war with the Romish error. The First Epistle of John betrays throughout, in thought and style, the author of the fourth Gospel. Authenticity.—A. Its doctrine of justification is no protest against that of Paul, but prior to it, and presents the subject from a less developed, yet eminently practical aspect, and against the error of a barren monotheism rather than Pharisaical legalism, which Paul had in view. Yet they bear the general imprint of the apostolic age, and the absence of stronger traditional evidence is due in part to their small size and limited use. Historians are fairly certain that Paul himself,Christianity’s first theologian and successful missionary, indisputablycomposed seven of the letters, and possibly could have written seve… Logistics: specific instructions, greetings, etc.Paul’s writings on application are usually rather general. The Pastoral Epistles focus on organization, relationships, and leadership within the household of God. Commentaries on the Catholic Epistles by John Calvin Read Online Download Listen Summary Formats Reviews About Summary. " Erasmus, Calvin, Grotius, Neander, De Wette, Huther, and all the Tübingen critics. It was written to churches in several provinces of Asia Minor, composed of Jewish and Gentile Christians together, and planted mainly by Paul and his fellow-laborers; and was sent by the hands of Silvanus, a former companion of Paul. by Schaff), etc. Weiss, who denies that Peter used the Epistles of Paul, dates it back as far as 54; the Tübingen critics bring it down to the age of Trajan (Volkmar even to 140! Comm on Catholic Epistles Theme. The twenty-one books following Acts are epistles, or letters,written from church leaders to churches in various parts of theworld. Hence they are called, from the time of Origen and Eusebius, Catholic. Consequently, these letters have been labelled the Johannine epistles, despite the fact that none of the epistles mentions any author. (2d ed.). These dictionary topics are from M.G. Acts 2:32), which contains the important truth of the universal intent of the atonement. Though addressed to particular persons the other two Epistles of St. John are also styled Catholic, because they have always been grouped with the epistles bearing that name. His doctrinal system, however, precedes that of Paul and is independent of it, standing between James and Paul. One of the longest epistles, Paul wrote this letter to the growing church in Rome as a way of expressing his enthusiasm for their success and his desire to visit them personally. It attests also the essential agreement of Peter with the doctrine of the Gentile apostle, in which the readers had been before instructed (1 Pet.5:12). 138): "Thatsache ist, dass die Ep. It contains a renewed assurance of his agreement with his "beloved brother Paul," to whose Epistles he respectfully refers, yet with the significant remark (true in itself, yet often abused by Romanists) that there are in them "some things hard to be understood" (2 Pet.3:15, 16). Introduction We now come to the final eight epistles of the New Testament canon, seven of which have often been called the General or Catholic Epistles, though Hebrews has been excluded from this description. Reuss occupies a middle position. They belong to the seven Antilegomena, and have been ascribed by some to the "Presbyter John," a contemporary of the apostle, though of disputed existence. Only two of these Epistles, the 1st of Peter and the 1st of John, belong to the Eusebian Homologumena, which were universally accepted by the ancient church as inspired and canonical. Bengel: "Mirabilis est gravitas et alacritas Petrini sermonis, lectorem suavissime retinens."  "This excellent Epistle," says Archbishop Leighton, whose Practical Commentary upon the First Epistle General of St. Peter is still unsurpassed for spirituality and unction, "is a brief and yet very clear summary both of the consolations and instructions needful for the encouragement and direction of a Christian in his journey to heaven, elevating his thoughts and desires to that happiness, and strengthening him against all opposition in the way, both that of corruption within and temptations and afflictions from without." The writer is obviously Paul (see the introduction to this volume for a discussion of these matters), and he is writing to a young man whom he led to the Lord and who was called into the "fulltime ministry," as a pastor, after having ministered to Paul for nearly ten years. It preaches a religion of good works which commends itself to the approval of God and all good men. 625 sqq.  Reuss (Gesch. They are of a more general character, and addressed not to individuals or single congregations, as those of Paul, but to a larger number of Christians scattered through a district or over the world. on this whole question the discussion in 27. Text Size.  Clement of Alexandria, Origen (in Greek), and Epiphanius distinguish him from the Apostles. Most modern scholars believe the author is not John the Apostle, but there is no scholarly consensus for any particular historical figure. the epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; so called because they are addressed to Christians in general, and not to any church or person in particular. Tags: « Prev: 1 Peter 5:1-4: Next » 1 Peter 5:1-4. The Tübingen critics put it down to the reign of Trajan; Renan, on the contrary, as far back as 54, wrongly supposing it to have been intended, together with the Epistle of James, as a counter-manifesto against Paul's doctrine of free grace. But the whole breathes an apostolic spirit, and could not well be spared from the New Testament. The time of composition cannot be fixed with certainty, but is probably as follows: James before a.d.50; 1st Peter (probably also 2d Peter and Jude) before a.d.67; John between a.d.80 and 100. 1:4]). ), but most critics assign it to the time between 63 and 67, Renan to 63, shortly before the Neronian persecution. First epistle Authenticity P. I. Gloag: Introduction, to the Catholic Epp., Edinb., 1887. It seems to be addressed to the same churches and directed against the same Gnostic heretics.
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